Some volatile fluids are used once only, and then escape into the atmosphere. Two of these are in general use, carbon dioxide and nitrogen. Both are stored as liquids under a combination of pressure and low temperature and then released when the cooling effect is required. Carbon dioxide is below its critical point at atmospheric pressure and can only exist as ‘snow’ or a gas. Since both gases come from the atmosphere, there is no pollution hazard. The temperature of carbon dioxide when released will be – 78.4°C. Nitrogen will be at – 198.8°C. Water ice can also be classified as a total loss refrigerant.